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Während des kalifornischen Goldrauschs von 18suchten Tausende ihr Glück als Goldgräber in Kalifornien. Aus dem kalifornischen Goldrausch leitet sich auch der offizielle Beiname Kaliforniens Golden State ab. Während des kalifornischen Goldrauschs von 18suchten Tausende ihr Glück als James J. Rawls, Richard J. Orsi (Hrsg.): A Golden State: Mining and Economic Development in Gold Rush California. University of California Press. – im Gold Country, dem Land der Goldgräber, an der richtigen Adresse! Unweit der kalifornischen Hauptstadt Sacramento liegt diese geschichtsträchtige Region. 'Lucky' Baldwin, Tex Rickard, Dave Neagle, Rex Beach, Jack London, and 'Arizona Charlie' Meadows were in the forefront of Western mining rushes. The Age of Gold: The California Gold Rush and the New American Dream (Search and Recover, Band 2) | Brands, H. W. | ISBN: | Kostenloser.
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Within a few years, the little port of San Francisco became a raucous frontier metropolis with a lively economy and California was named the 31st state.
The fortunate bettered their circumstance, but mining required, above all, luck. And not everyone got lucky. White Men's Gold Part of the difficulty for the individual miner was competition.
As the mining region grew more crowded, there was less gold to go around. Anglo-American miners became increasingly territorial over land they viewed as meant for them and forced other nationalities from the mines with violent tactics.
As for California's native people, one hundred and twenty thousand Native Americans died of disease, starvation and homicide during the gold rush.
Fading Dreams As the surface gold disappeared, individual miners found their dreams of cashing in on the gold rush growing more elusive. Many men went to work for the larger mining companies that invested in technology and equipment to reach the gold that lay below the surface.
By the mids mining for gold had become less an individual enterprise and more a wage labor job. Invasive Technique The large mining companies were highly successful at extracting gold.
In the process, they devastated the landscape and choked the rivers with sediment. The sediment washed downstream and flooded farmlands, ruining crops.
A court ruling brought an end to hydraulic mining in , and agriculture took over as the principal force behind the California economy. By , the idea that the extermination of the native population of California was inevitable had been firmly settled in the minds of many white Californians.
The Pierces faced new challenges when Hiram journied to California to seek fortune, leaving Sara and the family back east. She filed for divorce there in She died there on February 9, Gold rushes, stampedes, and boom towns attracted hundreds of thousands of people—and hundreds of different personality types—to the American West.
Many of these stampeders were gamblers, men of the green cloth; some were lawyers and officers of the law; and others were dreamers, teachers, speculators, clergymen, merchants, or women of easy virtue.
But these people and their ilk were pikers, short-timers, compared to the Irish immigrant named Nellie Cashman. Equally at home in the Nevada desert, San Francisco, British Columbia, Baja California, the Klondike of the Canadian Yukon, and north of the Arctic Circle in Alaska, Nellie began her stampede days in and did not end them until she died 53 years later.
After 13 or 14 years in Boston, the Cashmans headed west in the late s, settling in the vibrant community of San Francisco, where Irishmen were numerous and influential.
In , Nellie and her elderly mother traveled to the new silver-mining district of Pioche, Nevada, opening a boarding house about ten miles from the camp.
At Pioche, they found a wild environment, with thousands of boisterous miners and millmen—most of them Irish—living in a situation where filth, gun fights, and altercations between owners and employees were commonplace.
The throbbing life of this mining and milling center must have appealed to Nellie; in the coming decades, she would consistently move to similar communities.
There is no evidence that Nellie engaged in mining during her first experience at living near a mining camp. But during her two years at Pioche, she did become very involved in the affairs of the local Catholic church, participating in bazaars and other money-raising efforts.
When Nellie moved from Pioche, she left her mother with her sister Fanny and her family in San Francisco and traveled alone to northern British Columbia.
There, for a few years in the mids, she operated a boarding house in the Cassiar District, on the Stikine River, not far from modern Juneau.
She also worked gold-placer ground, becoming familiar with elementary mining geology. While on a trip to Victoria, Nellie heard that a severe winter storm had hammered her fellow miners in the Cassiar diggings and that no one could get through.
She immediately purchased supplies and sleds, hired six men, sailed to Fort Wrangell, Alaska, and headed inland through heavy snows. Her success at reaching the miners with the needed medicines and food became the talk of the West, as hundreds of miners considered her their savior.
In , Nellie headed south and opened a restaurant in the new railroad center of Tucson, Arizona Territory. Within a year, however, she moved on to a new silver camp at Tombstone.
Although she is linked to the legendary Arizona town from to , Nellie left for brief periods to prospect and mine or run hotels in Baja California; New Mexico; and several mining areas within Arizona.
And, following the death of her brother-in-law, Tom Cunningham, she took care of her sister Fanny and their five children. When Fanny herself died of tuberculosis three years later, Nellie became the sole spiritual and financial support of her nieces and nephews.
In , when news of a gold strike in Baja California spread over the West, Nellie organized a prospecting expedition that consisted of Milt Joyce, owner of the Oriental Saloon; Mark Smith, an active young lawyer who would later become a U.
Senator; and 19 other hopefuls. They took a train south to the Sonoran port of Guaymas in Mexico, sailed across the Gulf of California, then tracked inland to the deserts of Baja California, around Mission Santa Gertrudis.
The finds were pitifully small, and the Cashman party, like all the others lured by the prospect of riches, failed to find gold. Instead, they were almost killed by the extreme heat and the lack of water before giving up and returning to Arizona.
In , five convicted hold-up men, two of whom were Irish, were scheduled to be hanged in Tombstone. Nellie believed the authorities were making the executions too much of a public spectacle.
The miscreants were hanged on schedule, but with a little less hoopla than had been anticipated.
Late in the summer of that same year, miners involved in a bitter labor dispute reportedly tried to lynch E. Gage, superintendent of the Grand Central Mining Company.
Unfortunately, much of what Clum wrote was hearsay or exaggeration. He left town in and knew practically nothing first-hand of the events about which he later wrote.
When Clum saw Nellie in Dawson some years later, she was again soliciting funds for the church. This second encounter reinforced his image of her as a philanthropist.
In , Nellie was in the gold camp at Harqua Hala, in western Arizona, near the California line. She supplied the new camp with groceries and equipment, purchased mainly in Phoenix, and may have operated a boarding house there for a month or two.
Mostly, though, she was mining. She owned one of the better Harqua Hala claims, thoroughly prospected the region, and almost married Mike Sullivan, one of the original discoverers.
During this period, the Phoenix and Tucson newspapers published hundreds of articles about the Harqua Hala rush, some of them quite detailed. In the piece, which appeared in the March 6, edition, she discussed the history of the camp, its problems, current progress, and future.
She also commented on geological details, mining methods, richness of ore, assays, surface equipment, types of claims, and leading personalities in the field.
It was while she was in Yuma in , operating the Hotel Cashman, that Nellie heard of the gold strike in the Klondike. She closed shop, arranged some financial backing, and headed north, making the difficult trek over the Chilkoot Pass to Dawson.
By the time she arrived in the Klondike in , Nellie had worked gold in British Columbia and Arizona, and had owned and worked silver mines in Arizona and New Mexico.
In the Klondike, she worked her claims and, for a constant source of funds, operated restaurants. For much of the time in the Yukon, Nellie had an assistant—her nephew, Tom Cunningham.
Together they cooked, served meals, and did the dishes, then prospected and worked claims; when they had the time, they counted their net worth. Nellie made and lost a considerable amount of money in the Yukon.
When a major strike paid off, she would invest in further claims and, as she had done everywhere else, she contributed money to the local church and hospital.
By this time, Nellie was a major donor to the Sisters of St. Ann, having given money to their first hospital in Victoria, British Columbia, back in In Dawson, her social life pretty much consisted of visiting with the Sisters or with the local and visiting priests.
The reality was that Nellie was a miner, willing and able to push interlopers away from her claims. Feisty, aggressive, and proud, she became entangled in several major law suits while in the Yukon.
In pursuing these cases, she did not hesitate to use all the weapons available to her, even deliberately stretching the truth from time to time or acting on rumor or information known to be false.
She won some of the disputes and lost the others, but everyone knew that Nellie was no pushover. By , mining in Dawson had peaked.
Nellie began to hear of excitement on the Chena and Tanana rivers—the site of modern Fairbanks, Alaska.
Moving there in late , she opened a combination store and mining-supply center. And once again, she raised money for the local hospital.
Nellie did very well in Fairbanks, until she heard her last call. In the distant north, hundreds of miles away, on the Koyukuk River basin of Alaska, north of the Arctic Circle, prospectors were bringing in great specimens, and there was wild talk of a huge strike.
She first went to the Koyukuk country in , prospecting along Nolan and Wiseman Creeks. One of the first to file claims there, Nellie would eventually file more than twenty during the next two decades.
She seriously worked at least six of the sites and was making plans to bring in larger, more effective equipment when she died early in Truly at home in Koyukuk country, Nellie spent most of the last twenty years of her life on Nolan Creek, then the farthest north of any mining camp in the world.
She and the from one- to two-hundred others there were really on the edge of the world in a harsh climate, with no amenities, forgotten by just about everybody.
And there was Nellie Cashman—resident, miner, employer, equipment purchaser, and without doubt one of the steadiest mining personalities in the North.
In this fierce environment, where strength and a variety of talents might allow one to succeed—if one did not fall to venereal disease, frostbite, alcohol, or a mining cave-in—Nellie mined, mostly the placer or alluvial ground on Nolan Creek.
Nellie did take some trips south during her years on the Koyukuk. She visited Arizona four or five times to see her friends and her nephews and nieces, who were like her own children to her.
During a typical year she would leave Nolan Creek at least once for supplies and equipment, traveling the hundreds of miles to Fairbanks by boat, sled, or wagon, depending on the season.
She was always working ground, filing more claims. The Koyukuk country was the fulfillment of her dreams. Late in , Nellie realized that she had severe health problems.
Gradually, she worked her way down to Fairbanks, Juneau, and then Seattle. Finally, she requested to be sent to St. She was there for several weeks under the care of the Sisters of St.
Ann and Doctor W. Life in the goldfields offered opportunities for women to break from their traditional work. When the Gold Rush began, the California goldfields were peculiarly lawless places.
With the signing of the treaty ending the war on February 2, , California became a possession of the United States, but it was not a formal " territory " and did not become a state until September 9, California existed in the unusual condition of a region under military control.
There was no civil legislature, executive or judicial body for the entire region. Lax enforcement of federal laws, such as the Fugitive Slave Act of , encouraged the arrival of free blacks and escaped slaves.
While the treaty ending the Mexican—American War obliged the United States to honor Mexican land grants,  almost all the goldfields were outside those grants.
Instead, the goldfields were primarily on " public land ", meaning land formally owned by the United States government.
The benefit to the forty-niners was that the gold was simply "free for the taking" at first. In the goldfields at the beginning, there was no private property, no licensing fees, and no taxes.
Miners worked at a claim only long enough to determine its potential. If a claim was deemed as low-value—as most were—miners would abandon the site in search for a better one.
In the case where a claim was abandoned or not worked upon, other miners would "claim-jump" the land. Four hundred million years ago, California lay at the bottom of a large sea; underwater volcanoes deposited lava and minerals including gold onto the sea floor.
By tectonic forces these minerals and rocks came to the surface of the Sierra Nevada,  and eroded. Water carried the exposed gold downstream and deposited it in quiet gravel beds along the sides of old rivers and streams.
Because the gold in the California gravel beds was so richly concentrated, early forty-niners were able to retrieve loose gold flakes and nuggets with their hands, or simply " pan " for gold in rivers and streams.
Tunnels were then dug in all directions to reach the richest veins of pay dirt. In the most complex placer mining, groups of prospectors would divert the water from an entire river into a sluice alongside the river, and then dig for gold in the newly exposed river bottom.
In the next stage, by , hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel beds on hillsides and bluffs in the goldfields.
A byproduct of these extraction methods was that large amounts of gravel, silt , heavy metals , and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.
After the Gold Rush had concluded, gold recovery operations continued. The final stage to recover loose gold was to prospect for gold that had slowly washed down into the flat river bottoms and sandbars of California's Central Valley and other gold-bearing areas of California such as Scott Valley in Siskiyou County.
Both during the Gold Rush and in the decades that followed, gold-seekers also engaged in "hard-rock" mining , extracting the gold directly from the rock that contained it typically quartz , usually by digging and blasting to follow and remove veins of the gold-bearing quartz.
Loss of mercury in the amalgamation process was a source of environmental contamination. Recent scholarship confirms that merchants made far more money than miners during the Gold Rush.
Just as the rush began he purchased all the prospecting supplies available in San Francisco and re-sold them at a substantial profit. Some gold-seekers made a significant amount of money.
In California most late arrivals made little or wound up losing money. By contrast, a businessman who went on to great success was Levi Strauss , who first began selling denim overalls in San Francisco in Other businessmen reaped great rewards in retail, shipping, entertainment, lodging,  or transportation.
Brothels also brought in large profits, especially when combined with saloons and gaming houses. By , the economic climate had changed dramatically. Gold could be retrieved profitably from the goldfields only by medium to large groups of workers, either in partnerships or as employees.
By the mids, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies who made the money. Also, the population and economy of California had become large and diverse enough that money could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses.
Once extracted, the gold itself took many paths. First, much of the gold was used locally to purchase food, supplies and lodging for the miners.
It also went towards entertainment, which consisted of anything from a traveling theater to alcohol, gambling, and prostitutes.
These transactions often took place using the recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out. The gold then left California aboard ships or mules to go to the makers of the goods from around the world.
A second path was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or returned home taking with them their hard-earned "diggings".
A majority of the gold went back to New York City brokerage houses. As the Gold Rush progressed, local banks and gold dealers issued "banknotes" or "drafts"—locally accepted paper currency—in exchange for gold,  and private mints created private gold coins.
A study attributes the record-long economic expansion of the United States in the recession-free period of — primarily to "a boom in transportation-goods investment following the discovery of gold in California.
The Gold Rush propelled California from a sleepy, little-known backwater to a center of the global imagination and the destination of hundreds of thousands of people.
The new immigrants often showed remarkable inventiveness and civic-mindedness. For example, in the midst of the Gold Rush, towns and cities were chartered, a state constitutional convention was convened, a state constitution written, elections held, and representatives sent to Washington, D.
Large-scale agriculture California's second "Gold Rush"  began during this time. Between and , the population of San Francisco increased from to , The Panama Railway , spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in One ill-fated journey, that of the S.
Central America ,  ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in , with approximately three tons of California gold aboard.
The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. Native Americans, dependent on traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture, became the victims of starvation and disease, as gravel, silt and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations killed fish and destroyed habitats.
Later farming spread to supply the settlers' camps, taking more land away from the Native Americans.
In some areas, systematic attacks against tribespeople in or near mining districts occurred. Various conflicts were fought between natives and settlers.
After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track down the Indians, whom the men then attacked. Only three children survived the massacre that was against a different band of Wintu than the one that had killed Anderson.
Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between and and estimated that during this period at least 9, to 16, California Indians were killed by non-Indians, mostly occurring in more than massacres defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise".
While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert.
After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile.
The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world as well. Farmers in Chile , Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China.
The increase in gold supply also created a monetary supply shock. Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush, in , the groundbreaking ceremony for the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held in Sacramento.
The line's completion, some six years later, financed in part with Gold Rush money,  united California with the central and eastern United States.
Travel that had taken weeks or even months could now be accomplished in days. California's name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world became known as the "California Dream.
Historian H. Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation:. The old American Dream The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck.
Overnight California gained the international reputation as the "golden state". California farmers,  oil drillers,  movie makers,  airplane builders ,  computer and microchip makers, and "dot-com" entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush.
In addition, the standard route shield of state highways in California is in the shape of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Gold rush from until in California. For the film, see California Gold Rush film. Prospectors working California gold placer deposits in Crushing quartz ore prior to washing out gold.
Main articles: California Genocide and Unfree labour in California. California portal United States portal.
After , California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era. California State University, Stanislaus. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved January 23, Learn California.
Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved December 3, Another route across Nicaragua was developed in ; it was not as popular as the Panama option.
Rawls, James J. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved February 26, Retrieved October 22, Other estimates range from 70, to 90, arrivals during ibid.
Archived from the original on May 13, Another estimate is 2, forty-niners of African ancestry. The American Experience. Retrieved October 4, August 26, Retrieved March 7, The surviving U.
There were fewer than 1, U. The letters were originally published in — by The Pioneer magazine. The U.
Congress finally legalized the practice in the " Chaffee laws " of and the "placer law" of Lindley, Curtis H. See also John F.
Burns, and Richard J. Douglas W. Archived from the original on May 14, The term "ounces" used in this article to refer to gold typically refers to troy ounces.
There are some historical uses where, because of the age of the use, the intention is ambiguous. See Roman-era gold mines in Spain. Roman engineers built extensive aqueducts and reservoirs above gold-bearing areas, and released the stored water in a flood so as to remove over-burden and expose gold-bearing bedrock, a process known as hushing.
The bedrock was then attacked using fire and mechanical means, and volumes of water were used again to remove debris, and to process the resulting ore.
The gold recovered using these methods was used to finance the expansion of the Roman Empire. Hushing was also used in lead and tin mining in Northern Britain and Cornwall.
There is, however, no evidence of the earlier use of hoses, nozzles and continuous jets of water in the manner developed in California during the Gold Rush.
Alpers; Michael P. Hunerlach; Jason T. May; Roger L. Geological Survey. Retrieved February 19, Evidence from the California Gold Rush".
Journal of Economic History. Lick's fortune was used to build Lick Observatory. Huntington , Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker , Sacramento area businessmen later known as the Big Four who financed the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad , and became very wealthy as a result.
Other estimates are that there were 7,—13, non-Native Americans in California before January See Holliday, J.
See Starr, Kevin , p. The Journal of Economic History. By , California had over flour mills, and was exporting wheat and flour around the world.
Harper's New Monthly Magazine. March From California we have intelligence to January The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama is completed, and trains passed..
Central America.In his drunken fury, he tried to wrest a gun from one of them, which being accidentally discharged in Dinner Und Casino Graz struggle, inflicted a severe wound upon a Mr. She was sentenced to leave the Bar by day-light…. Mit einem Kleinkind in einen Freizeitpark zu gehen ist nichts für schwache Nerven. President James K. Lodi Wine Country. As Free Download Lucky Ladys Charm mining region grew more crowded, there was less gold to go around. Invasive Technique The large mining companies were highly successful at extracting gold. The Gold Rush town of Free Handykarten on the Trinity River today retains the oldest continuously used Taoist temple in California, a legacy of Chinese miners who came. In many other places in California, doctors and lawyers were already in abundance. One of the first to file claims there, Nellie would eventually file more than twenty during the next two decades.