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Civil war broke about between them, and when Julius Caesar arrived for a visit in 48 BCE it was still ongoing.

Caesar spent the winter of 48—47 settling the war and killing off Ptolemy the XIII; he left in the spring after putting Cleopatra on the throne alone.

That summer she bore a son she named Caesarion and claimed he was Caesar's. She went to Rome in 46 BCE and obtained legal recognition as an allied monarch.

She eventually sided with Octavian's group. After Octavian took power in Rome, Anthony was named Triumvir of the eastern provinces including Egypt. He came to Egypt the winter of 41—40; she bore twins in the spring.

Anthony married Octavia instead, and for the next three years, there is almost no information about Cleopatra's life in the historical record.

Somehow she ran her kingdom and raised her three Roman children, without direct Roman influence. Anthony returned east from Rome in 36 BCE to make an ill-fated attempt to gain Parthia for Rome, and Cleopatra went with him and came home pregnant with her fourth child.

The expedition was funded by Cleopatra but it was a disaster, and in disgrace, Mark Anthony returned to Alexandria. He never went back to Rome.

In 34, Cleopatra's control over the territories that had been claimed by Anthony for her was formalized and her children were designated as rulers of those regions.

Rome led by Octavian began to see Mark Anthony as a rival. Anthony sent his wife home and a propaganda war about who was Caesar's true heir Octavian or Caesarion erupted.

Octavian declared war on Cleopatra in 32 BC; an engagement with Cleopatra's fleet took place off Actium in September of She recognized that if she and her ships stayed in Actium Alexandria would soon be in trouble, so she and Mark Anthony went home.

Back in Egypt, she made futile attempts to flee to India and set Caesarion on the throne. Mark Anthony was suicidal, and negotiations between Octavian and Cleopatra failed.

The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.

Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.

Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra, [note 66] the sculpture known as the " Berlin Cleopatra ", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the " Vatican Cleopatra ", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.

Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum , London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.

Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum , Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums [1] [3] [].

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum [1] [3] [].

Another painting from Pompeii , dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.

In a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa , near Tivoli, Lazio , Italy, that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.

The Portland Vase , a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Antony.

In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture , [] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.

Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts , such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in In the performing arts , the death of Elizabeth I of England in , and the German publication in of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his play Cleopatra in In Victorian Britain , Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs , postcards and cigarettes.

Burnand 's Antony and Cleopatra offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.

Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine.

Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd- or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as referring to Cleopatra.

Cleopatra belonged to the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies , [8] [] [] [note 76] their European origins tracing back to northern Greece.

Cleopatra I Syra was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama , the Sogdian Iranian wife of Seleucus I.

Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship , [note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.

Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt.

For other uses, see Cleopatra disambiguation. Unlocated tomb probably in Egypt. Main article: Early life of Cleopatra. Further information: First Triumvirate.

Main articles: Early life of Cleopatra and Reign of Cleopatra. Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis , on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre , Paris.

Main article: Reign of Cleopatra. Further information: Liberators' civil war. Main articles: Donations of Alexandria and Reign of Cleopatra. Main articles: Battle of Actium and Reign of Cleopatra.

Main article: Death of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage and Ancient Greek coinage. Further information: Roman historiography , Greek historiography , Latin literature , and Latin poetry.

Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage , Roman currency , and Ancient Greek coinage.

An ancient Roman portrait head , c. A steel engraving published by John Sartain in left depicting the now lost painted death portrait of Cleopatra, an encaustic painting discovered in in the ancient Roman ruins of the Egyptian temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Lazio ; [] she is seen here wearing the knotted garment of Isis corresponding with Plutarch 's description of her wearing the robes of Isis , [] as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers such as Ptolemy V pictured to the right in a golden octodrachm minted in — BC.

Further information: Portland Vase. Further information: Medieval art , Medieval literature , Renaissance art , Renaissance literature , and Early Modern literature.

Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra , History of modern literature , and Egyptomania. Further information: Ancient Greek literature and Ancient Egyptian literature.

Burstein , p. Those in favor of claiming her death occurred on 10 August 30 BC include Roller , pp. However, Duane W.

Roller , relaying Theodore Cressy Skeat , affirms that Caesarion's reign "was essentially a fiction created by Egyptian chronographers to close the gap between [Cleopatra's] death and official Roman control of Egypt under the new pharaoh, Octavian ," citing, for instance, the Stromata by Clement of Alexandria Roller , pp.

Raia, Ann R. Bivar, A. Burstein, Stanley M. Gurval, Robert A. Holt, Frank L. Hsia, Chih-tsing , C. Johnson, Janet H.

Jones, Prudence J. Kennedy, David L. Roller, Duane W. Rowland, Ingrid D. Royster, Francesca T. Skeat, T. Southern, Patricia [], Augustus 2nd ed.

Varner, Eric R. Walker, Susan , "Cleopatra in Pompeii? Chauveau, Michel Cleopatra: Beyond the Myth. Cornell University Press. Flamarion, Edith Cleopatra: The Life and Death of a Pharaoh.

Translated by Bonfante-Warren, Alexandra. New York: Harry N. Foss, Michael The Search for Cleopatra.

Arcade Publishing. Fraser, P. Ptolemaic Alexandria. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lindsay, Jack New York: Coward-McCann.

Nardo, Don Lucent Books. Pomeroy, Sarah B. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: from Alexander to Cleopatra. New York: Schocken Books. Samson, Julia Stacey International.

Southern, Pat Syme, Ronald []. The Roman Revolution. Oxford University Press. Tyldesley, Joyce Cleopatra: Last Queen of Egypt.

Basic Books. Volkmann, Hans Cleopatra: a Study in Politics and Propaganda. Cadoux, trans. New York: Sagamore Press.

Weigall, Arthur E. Brome Edinburgh: Blackwood.

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